Mining and processing of oil shale and tar sands. by National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Surface Mining and Reclamation.

Cover of: Mining and processing of oil shale and tar sands. | National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Surface Mining and Reclamation.

Published by National Academy of Sciences in Washington .

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Edition Notes

Appendix 2 to the Committee"s Surface mining of non-coal minerals.

Book details

ContributionsNational Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Surface Mining and Reclamation.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL21256271M
ISBN 100309030374

Download Mining and processing of oil shale and tar sands.

Oil sands are actually found all over the world, and are sometimes referred to as tar sands or bituminous sands. A typical oil sands deposit in Alberta contains on average about 10% bitumen, 5% water and 85% solids, mostly in the form of coarse silica sand. Oil sands also contain fine solids and clays, typically in the range of 10 to 30% by weight.

Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales).

Shale oil is a substitute for conventional crude oil; however, extracting shale oil from oil shale is more costly than the Primary: Kerogen, Quartz, Feldspar. Like the kerogen in oil shale, tar sands' bitumen can be upgraded to synthetic crude oil.

Because developing fossil fuels from these resources is different and more intensive than traditional energy production, such as coal mining or oil and gas drilling, oil shale and tar sands are referred to as unconventional fuel sources.

The Canadian tar sands are distributed in three major deposits thought to cover more t square miles (, km 2), and the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board estimates that ~ trillion barrels ( × 10 12 bbls) of crude oil equivalent are contained within the tar sand deposits of.

Get this from a library. Surface mining of non-coal minerals: appendix II, mining and processing of oil shale and tar sands. [National Research Council.

Get this from a library. Mining and processing of oil shale and tar sands: a working paper prepared for the Committee on Surface Mining and Reclamation, Board on Mineral and Energy Resources, Commission on Natural Resources, National Research Council. [National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Surface Mining and Reclamation.].

The truth is tar sands or oil shale strip mining, upgrading into a use-able fuel and delivering to a viable market at a profit is a far off pipe dream in Eastern Utah. Take a look at Canada and the reality of tar sands mining in Alberta to understand the amount of infrastructure and energy involved in the commercial production of oil.

Oil Shale and Tar SandsThe United States holds more than half the world’s oil shale, a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing organic matter from which petroleum products may be distilled.

Although it has long been seen as a potential source of secure, reliable, and affordable energy, the technology to produce oil from oil shale in commercial quantities has been elusive.

US Oil Sands the fraudulent tar sands strip mining company changed its name to is the third time since They first began leasing land for strip mining in Eastern Utah, as “Earth Energy Resources”.

The newly named “ resources” has never actually made a profit however they have continued to pay large salaries to the CEOs after. Shale oil can be recovered either by mining the shale and then processing it or by heating the kerogen in place. So far attempts to produce shale oil have been largely limited to the first approach: the stone is mined, crushed, and then heated in a coker vat to extract organic material.

Oil shales and tar sands are already causing major environmental controversies, since so much oil exists in them, and since mining and refining it are so polluting. Mining the 2 trillion barrels of petroleum from U.S.

oil shales would leave behind 9 trillion tons of waste rock—an amount equal to the weight of 24 million Empire State Buildings. Oil shale and tar sands development using mine-and-retort methods produces a huge amount of spent rock.

Abarrel-per-day oil shale industry would require the disposal of up totons of waste rock each day, or 55 million. Oil shale processing technology.

[Basic information on mining and shale preparation, retorting processes, shale-oil upgrading, and qualifications of the Fluor Corp.

in these areas]. United States: N. p., Web. The exploitation of oil shale involves mining, after which shale is directly burned to produce electricity or undergoes further processing. The two very common methods of surface mining, open-pit mining and strip mining, involve the removal of overlying material.

Mined oil sands have been estimated to have an energy returned on invested of EROI of –6 for mined tar sands (perhaps 10% of the billion barrels), with in situ processing much lower at –4 (Brandt ). And this EROI does not include the /5(16).

What are Oil Sands. Oil sands, also known as "tar sands," are sediments or sedimentary rocks composed of sand, clay minerals, water, and bitumen. The oil is in the form of bitumen, a very heavy liquid or sticky black solid with a low melting temperature. Development of Utah Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resources October Authors: Laura S.

Nelson, PhD., Chair; and Tim J. Wall,Vice-Chair Oil Shale/Tar Sands Committee Utah Mining Association I. Executive Summary This paper discusses the key issues facing development of the oil shale and tar sands resources inFile Size: KB.

Tar sands mining requires barrels of water for every barrel of oil produced. This water, mixed with carcinogenic chemicals and other toxins, is used to wash the tar, and then released onto the surface of the ground with out so much as a lined pit to trap the chemical laden water.

Context. In general, unconventional forms of oil including oil sands mining are becoming important in global energy supply due to decreasing reserves of conventional the Canadian oil sands, debate continues over the industry’s environmental impacts and capacity for International Energy Agency has warned that expanding Canadian production hinges on.

A spring in Main Canyon at the base of the proposed strip mining operation by US Oil Sands near PR Spring. Photo courtesy of Porter Teegarden. 2 8) Operations will significantly reduce air quality, increase greenhouse gas emissions, and increase fugitive soot and dust.

9) Traditional economies will be impaired for many centuries, as. A key area of controversy over mining in the boreal region is the exploitation of tar (or oil) sands, which are areas with sand or sandstone saturated with bitumen, a viscous form of petroleum, which can be mined and processed to produce oil.

Tar sands are extracted by either surface (open pit) mining or in-situ extraction. For surface mining, areas are first cleared of trees, bogs. The in-place tar sands oil resources in Utah are estimated at 12 to 20 billion barrels.” — “Tar sands (also referred to as oil sands) are a combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen, a heavy black viscous oil.” [Quoted from ] [Tars sands are also known as bitumenous sands.].

Three unconventional fossil fuels are oil sands, oil, shale, and methane hydrate. Oil sands are made up of sand, clay, and somewhere between 1 and 20% bitumen, a heavy form of petroleum.

It comes from broken down and chemically altered crude oil deposits. Oil shale is sedimentary rock that contains a lot of organic matter and can be made into. Oil shale gains attention as a potential abundant source of oil whenever the price of crude oil rises.

At the same time, oil-shale mining and processing raise. Beginning on 20 AugustBill McKibben is leading what may be the largest green civil disobedience campaign in a generation, against the proposed construction of the 1,mile long Keystone XL pipeline.

The pipeline would transport oil from the Alberta tar sands in Canada to American refineries at the Gulf of Mexico, and many are concerned about the associated. BNP Paribas is to stop doing business with companies whose primary activity involves oil and gas extracted from shale deposits or tar sands in one of the most aggressive steps so far by an Author: David Keohane.

Mined oil sands have been estimated to have an energy returned on invested of EROI of –6 for mined tar sands (perhaps 10% of the billion barrels), with in situ processing much lower at –4 (Brandt ). And this EROI does not include the /5(24). Petroteq’s claims challenge the notion that oil sands mining is in eclipse.

The heavy oil produced from oil sands is among the most carbon-intensive fuels, a drawback as concerns about climate Author: Clifford Krauss.

The refinery’s application calls for processing hydrocarbons from oil shale and tar sands — and it could facilitate strip mining of those fuels on leasable land in the Colorado River Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey estimates that between billion and trillion barrels of oil in the Green River Formation’s oil shale deposits.

Strip-mining the boreal to extract the tar sands and processing the oil makes the sands much more damaging to the climate than conventional oil. Oil prices need to be above $80 per barrel for.

It educates the viewer about tar sands and oil shale and what is happening in Utah. Utah is likely to be the seed that awakens the beast in the West (Utah, Colorado, Wyoming) of tar sands and oil shale mining and processing.

If it's alright to extract tar sands—why not oil shale. Oil shale - Oil shale - Environmental issues: The production of oil from shales has a potentially serious impact on the environment. Four specific areas of concern dominate discussion regarding development of the resource: greenhouse gas output, water consumption and pollution, surface disturbance, and socioeconomic effects.

Because oil and gas are produced by heating oil. Or it could revolutionize tar sands mining in the state -- as boosters such as Gov. Gary Herbert predict -- catalyzing Utah's unconventional oil. Making fuel from oil shale and tar sands is an energy-intensive process of mining, heating, chemical treatment and refining.

Its greenhouse gas emissions would far exceed that of conventional oil. For example, emissions from Alberta’s tar sands development exceed that of conventional oil by several times.

Tar sands mining requires barrels of water for every barrel of oil produced. This water is contaminated with known carcinogens and other toxins, used to wash the tar, and then released onto the surface of the ground with out so much as a lined pit to trap the chemical laden water.

The mineable extent of the oil sands is overlain by no more than 75 meters of overburden consisting of – in order from the ground surface – boreal forest, wetlands and muskeg (i.e., peat bog), glacial drift, clay and unconsolidated sand, and Lower Cretaceous shale (Figure ).

The Book Cliffs of eastern Utah, a biologically, geologically and recreationally rich area of Utah, are being targeted for commercial development of oil shale and tar sands, a fossil fuel development process that strip mines the land, destroys wildlife habitat, pollutes our air, leaves a legacy of toxic waste, accelerates climate change and.

policy and energy resource development. For oil shale and oil sands, the raw material extraction, processing, and upgrading life-cycle stages can be important contributors to the carbon footprint. Given the uncertainty of the regulatory climate with respect to carbon, two different combustion systems A Market Assessment of Oil Shale and Oil SandsFile Size: KB.

The Israeli process for producing energy from oil shale will cut its oil imports by one-third, and will serve as a guide for other countries with oil shale deposits, according to one company. A.F.S.K.

Hom Tov presented its oil shale processing method on Tuesday, outside Haifa and just down the street from one of the country’s two oil refinery.

Oil shale extraction: • Oil shale can be mined using one of two methods: underground mining using the room-and-pillar method or surface mining. • After mining, the oil shale is transported to a facility for retorting, a heating process that separates the oil fractions of oil shale from the mineral fraction.

The mining of oil shale requires conversion of the solid hydrocarbons in the rock to liquid form, so that they can pumped or is done by heating the rock to a high temperature, and. We've written so many times about the unmitigated environmental disaster that is tapping unconventional sources of oil, such as Canadian tar sands and US oil shales, that the subject may be old Author: Mat Mcdermott.The environmental impact of the oil sands is an issue that has been extremely divisive.

As with the extraction and use of any fossil fuel, negative environmental effects arise as a result of the extraction, upgrading, and processing of bitumen from the oil sands. Although some steps are being taken to reduce the severity of these impacts - such as reclamation - there are still .

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